One of the things that I really like about Drupal 7 is how much easier it is to set up caching than in Drupal 6. It was as simple as installing Varnish, APC, and Memcache on my server, installing a few Drupal modules for my site, and updating my Drupal site's settings.php file.
Varnish is a reverse-proxy HTTP accelerator that works great for quickly serving anonymous website trafic. Essentially, Varnish responds to HTTP requests (e.g. for pages, images, CSS documents, etc.) and gathers the necessary resources from one or more servers, caches them, and provides the requested resources in its response to the client. After Varnish generates a cached version of a given resource, Varnish will serve that instead of re-contacting any backend servers and processes, such as Apache/nginx and MySQL, for the cache's lifetime. Varnish can serve cached resources extremely quickly, and its use typically speeds up delivery from 100 to 1000 times. Anytime a cached version of a page is served, the backend is not involved, saving server resources.
Once a response is no longer anonymous (e.g. there is a cookie header present, such as after a user logs into the website), Varnish will bypass its cache and instead contact backend servers directly for the resources needed to fulfill the request. One reason for Varnish to act this way is so that the server(s) can respond dynamically to the user (e.g. provide account information) as the user navigates through the site.
APC and Memcache
I'm not going to talk very much about APC or Memcache, since there is plenty of information about installation and configuration available for both, and I think that since both function squarely in the backend, they're less difficult to understand. In my single-server setup, APC and Memcache also required very little configuration. I do think that it's important to note that APC is PHP-specific and is somewhat limited. There is no way of which I'm aware, for example, to share an APC cache across load-balanced PHP servers. In a multi-server environment such as this, it is better to use Memcache. It is also my understanding that APC works better when a cache is unlikely to change very often, so I'm only caching cache and cache_bootstrap in APC and using Memcache as my default caching mechanism.
Drupal 7: Module Installation
Here is the list of caching-related Drupal modules that I have installed:
- APC - Alternative PHP Cache
- Cache Expiration
- Memcache API and Integration
- Varnish HTTP Accelerator Integration
Three out of the four modules are fairly obvious; they provide Drupal integration for Varnish, APC, and Memcache. Cache Expiration is great because it provides support for dynamic cache expiration when nodes, users, comments, taxonomy terms, and more are added or updated. This is important because it allows a site administrator to head over to Configuration → Development → Performance and raise the "Expiration of cached pages" value way up, increasing cache hit rates. There is no need to worry, because if a new node is posted or a user comments on an existing one, the page will be dynamically purged and anonymous users who visit the page will see the new content, even if the lifetime of the cached page had not yet been reached.
Drupal 7: settings.php
As part of the process of getting the preceding modules set up, I needed to make some changes to my settings.php file. First, I let Drupal know that a reverse-proxy server (Varnish) is being employed for the site. After finding the following line, I uncommented it:
$conf['reverse_proxy'] = TRUE;
I also searched for and uncommented the reverse-proxy header:
$conf['reverse_proxy_header'] = 'HTTP_X_CLUSTER_CLIENT_IP';
Next, I uncommented the reverse-proxy addresses configuration line and set the address to my localhost (127.0.0.1)
$conf['reverse_proxy_addresses'] = array('127.0.0.1');
Finally, I added several cache configuration options at the bottom of my settings.php file to get everything running:
$conf['cache_backends'] = 'sites/all/modules/contrib/varnish/varnish.cache.inc';
$conf['cache_class_cache_page'] = 'VarnishCache';
// Drupal 7 does not cache pages when we invoke hooks during bootstrap.
// This needs to be disabled.
$conf['page_cache_invoke_hooks'] = FALSE;
$conf['cache_backends'] = 'sites/all/modules/contrib/memcache/memcache.inc';
$conf['cache_default_class'] = 'MemCacheDrupal';
$conf['cache_class_form'] = 'DrupalDatabaseCache';
$conf['cache_backends'] = 'sites/all/modules/contrib/apc/drupal_apc_cache.inc';
$conf['cache_class_cache'] = 'DrupalAPCCache';
$conf['cache_class_cache_bootstrap'] = 'DrupalAPCCache';
//$conf['apc_show_debug'] = TRUE; // Remove the slashes to use debug mode.
Drupal must be made aware of Varnish, Memcache, and APC via cache_backends, and cache bins can then be assigned to specific caching mechanisms (cache_page for Varnish, cache and cache_bootstrap for APC, and any other cache bins default to Memcache). I'm caching class_form in the database because the cache_form bin must be assigned to non-volatile storage. The reason behind this is that if the data from the cache_form bin is lost, forms can become invalidated. There's a fairly long-standing issue in the Drupal 8 dev queue that goes into a little bit more detail about this issue.